Cervic cancer

All about it..

Uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries is the woman’s internal sex organs. The womb (uterus) is located in the pelvis behind the bladder. The shape and size of the uterus is reminiscent of a small pear. The body of the uterus is about six cm long. Its walls composed of smooth muscle, which is a few centimeters thick, and which surrounds the triangular uterine cavity. The mucous membrane lining the uterine inner walls are called the endometrium and this is cancer of the uterine body can occur.

The lower part of the uterus known cervix (cervical). At the bottom is the cervix (the cervix), which is clad in squamous cells. It is in the squamous epithelium to cervical cancer usually occurs and it is also here that you take the test at the gynecological cell sampling. The cells of the cervix is ​​of the columnar (gland cells).

The two ovaries (ovarian) sitting on each side of the uterus and is about three cm long. The ovaries are several thousand genes to egg cells, and it is in the ovaries of female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are formed.cervic vaccine

During the woman’s fertile years comes off usually an egg cell from the ovaries each month, and transported down to the uterus through the fallopian tube. When the woman entered menopause (in the 45-55 age) decreases ovarian production of sex hormones gradually and ovulation ceases.

The oviducts are two funnel-shaped tube that starts from the womb upper part, one at each side. The funnels have fringes around their openings and they are located right next to the ovary to catch the egg in the abdomen during ovulation.


Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer Print (about 13 pages) Find in this article Summary What is cervical cancer? What causes cervical cancer? How can you protect yourself? Symptoms When to seek medical care? Surveys and studies Getting a cancer diagnosis Treatment How is the life of cervical cancer? Summary Generally Cancer of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus, develops slowly over many years. If you go for regular cervical screening, cell changes that can lead to cancer detected and removed in good time. The most common reason that you get cervical cancer is that by six infected with a virus called HPV, the human papillomavirus. There are many different types of HPV, but only a few that cause cancer. One can, to some extent, but not entirely, to protect themselves by using condoms. It may also be vaccinated against two of the most common viruses that cause cancer. Most people who get cervical cancer will be completely healthy again after treatment. Symptoms The most common symptom is vaginal bleeding, which may, for example, when you have intercourse. In the early stages of the disease, it may be that you do not have any symptoms at all. Treatment If you have cervical cancer can be operated on, or get radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy. Sometimes combine all three methods. Treatment often involves the uterus need to be removed or irradiated. For those who want to become pregnant, it is a difficult result of cancer treatment, but if the cancer is detected early, it can sometimes be possible with a minor surgery that preserves the ability to have children.

When to seek medical care? If you experience bleeding when you have sex or between their menstrual periods, you should seek treatment at a clinic or a gynecologist. This also applies if you experience bleeding after you have stopped having periods. You can always call and get medical advice on telephone number 1177th   What is cervical cancer? Two different kinds of cancer of the uterus There are various types of cancer that occur in the uterus. The two most common are cervical cancer and uterine cancer, often called endometrial cancer. The two diseases are different in several ways, not least in terms of age when you become ill. Pretty young women can get cervical cancer, while very rarely get uterine cancer before age 40. What is cancer? The human body consists of billions of cells. For the body to grow and survive, they need to most cells regularly replaced. This is done by cells divide. When the cell to divide and doubles its entire content and becomes two cells. Then, an exact copy of the cell is created and the first cell dies. Usually works with cell division or pass the cell genome, DNA itself to repair the damage caused. But any time you have the cell damage that the self can not repair, and then lose the ability to control their division and growth. It can lead to cancer occurs. The characteristics of cancer cells including that they continue to multiply uncontrollably while they do not die when their time is up. Often, cancer cells clump together and form a tumor.


Cervical cancer develops in the cervix The cervix is ​​the lower part of the uterus. It goes down into the vagina and ends with the cervix. The cervical function during a pregnancy withstand the pressures of the fetus creates. During labor widening it so that the baby can come out. The cervix and uterus tap is covered by two different cell types that meet in an area of ​​the cervix. The mucosa is extra susceptible to attack by bacteria and viruses, which can damage cells. Cell changes may then occur which may eventually develop into cancer. Cell changes usually divided into three degrees, light, moderate and severe. All cell changes do not lead to cancer, but many heal themselves. Light lesions heal more often than moderate and severe. Cervical cancer usually develops slowly by the cell changes gradually increases. From lightweight cell changes into a full-blown cancerous tumor, it can take up to fifteen years. Picture of the uterus, cervix, cervix and vagina It is in an area down on the cervix that cervical cancer develops. If the cancer grows and spreads If the tumor is not treated, it grows and eventually spread from the lining into the cervical muscle wall and out into the pelvis. Cancer cells can also spread via lymfbanor to the lymph nodes in the pelvis. It is the most common form of daughter tumors, or metastases. Spread may also occur through the blood to other organs such as liver, bone and brain. Seven out of ten becomes completely healthy Each year, approximately 450 Swedish women diagnosed with cervical cancer. Since gynecological smear tests were introduced in Sweden in the mid-1960s, the number of women who get cervical cancer halved. Many women, around 30 000 per year, are informed that they have cell changes. Of these, 30,000 require about a quarter to undergo some form of treatment. Cervical cancer is very rare before the age of 25. It is most common disease among women between 30 and 40 years and in women over 70 years. It is probably because these older women do not regularly have undergone Pap smear. Seven out of ten women are today fresh from cervical cancer.


ad cervical cancer depends on? A virus causes the disease The most common cause of cervical cancer is that you have ever been infected by some type of HPV, the human papillomavirus. HPV in the genital area is common and is spread through sex. In the vast majority of those infected infection heals by itself. But some women have a persistent infection that can cause damage to cells in the cervical mucosa. Cell changes may then occur and eventually develop into cancer. There are more than hundred different types of HPV that may occur at different sites in the body. Some types cause warts on the hands and makes you get warts in the genital area known as genital warts.

The disease does not have cancer to make. The types of HPV that can cause cancer is primarily HPV 16 and 18. These viruses do not produce visible changes and cause no symptoms. What increases the risk of cervical cancer? A lasting HPV infection is a prerequisite for a cancer tumor to be developed, but there are other factors involved. If you have sharply been impaired immune systems, have had repeated infections of the vagina or smoking may increase the risk that you will get cervical cancer. How can you protect yourself? Regular Pap smears provide good protection By providing the cell sample, the cell changes detected and treated before cancer has developed. Since the development of cancer usually takes many years, there are good opportunities to catch detect dangerous cell changes in time. All women between 23 and 50 years are invited every three years for cervical screening. Since depleted checks out to five years and discontinued after the age 60. The procedures may vary slightly depending on where you live in the country.old couple

Vaccinations also protects You can also protect themselves by getting vaccinated themselves. Vaccination protects against the virus types HPV 16 and 18, which cause about 70 percent of all cervical cancer. In order to have the best benefit of the vaccine should not be infected with the HPV virus, so it is best to be vaccinated before they started having sex. Vaccination against HPV is part of the general vaccination program for children. Even if you are vaccinated, it is important to continue to go on cervical screening because the vaccine does not protect against all types of viruses that can cause cervical cancer. Condoms provide some protection Because HPV is transmitted sexually, you can partially protect themselves by using condoms. Symptoms Often no symptoms in early stages When one has the precursors of cervical cancer include no symptoms, but the doctor can only detect them at a gynecological smear tests. Even if you have full-blown cervical cancer in the early stage can be without symptoms. Bleeding most common symptom The most common symptom of cervical cancer is vaginal bleeding. They may initially come after intercourse or in connection with efforts such as when pushing the toilet. After a while, the more often, and eventually more or less daily. If the cancer has spread outside the uterus can get hurt in a way similar to menstrual cramps. Even the legs may swell. One can get bleeding from other causes You may have spotting that does not at all depend on cervical cancer. They can for example be due to the use of the pill, the IUD or fragile mucous membranes.

When to seek medical care? If you experience bleeding when you have sex or between their menstrual periods, you should seek treatment at a clinic or a gynecologist. This also applies if you experience bleeding after you have stopped having periods. You can always call and get medical advice on telephone number 1177th   Surveys and studies Gynaecological examination and tissue samples If one has symptoms, or if a smear have shown cell changes, need to undergo a gynecological examination, typically on a gynecological clinic. Then the doctor uses a special microscope called a colposcope to better see any changes on the cervix. It is also a tissue sample therefrom. The survey does not hurt, but the tissue sample may seem like a stick in a blood sample. The tissue sample is analyzed in a laboratory, which takes 2-4 weeks. In the course of the investigation will be agreed with the doctor about how and when you can get answers to what samples have shown. If the test shows cancer If it turns out that you have cervical cancer, the doctor sends a referral to a cancer clinic or oncology clinic, as it is also called. You also get a referral to a radiology department to undergo CT scan of the lungs and abdomen and possibly MRI to find out if the cancer has spread.

New gynecological examination at the cancer clinic The cancer center, you get to speak to a doctor and then undergo a gynecological examination again when you are sedated or have an epidural. The survey is usually done by a team of doctors who are experts in gynecological cancers. They weigh then merged radiographs and what they discovered during the investigation. What kind of treatment that doctors recommend depends on the extent of the disease but also on how old you are and if you have other diseases. New medical assessment If you are diagnosed with cervical cancer and feel unsure about whether you get the care and treatment that is best for you, you can get a new medical assessment, called a second opinion. When you meet another doctor, usually at a different specialist reception. Ask your doctor if you want to know more about how you can get a new medical assessment. Getting a cancer diagnosis Good for a loved one can be with It might be good to have a relative or friend who supported when to see the doctor to find out the results of the sampling. The relatives can help to remember what was said during the call, and can be a great emotional support. To get a message that you have cancer often arouse strong emotions and you need plenty of time to talk with their doctors and other health professionals to understand what the news means for oneself. If you do not speak Swedish, you are entitled to receive information in their own language. Although cancer is a common disease, cancer can often be daunting news, because many people associate cancer with death. Although cancer is a fatal disease if not treated, there are now treatments that can make you become healthy. For many who are not completely free of cancer have increased chances to live longer and maintain a good quality of life with the disease.

The lifestyle that can prevent cancer

There is much we can do to keep ourselves as healthy as possible, for as long as possible. Lifestyle researcher Alicja Wolk is a real expert on the subject. Here she talks about her studies and provides five practical tips that can reduce the risk of cancer.

Alicja Wolk leads a large research in nutritional epidemiology at the Karolinska Institute in Solna. She has held research grants from the Swedish Cancer Society since 1990, has been in Cancer Fund Priority Committee and Research Committee and is part of the Cancer Society’s expert advice. Photo: Stefan Zimmerman.

Alicja Wolk leads a large research in nutritional epidemiology at the Karolinska Institute in Solna. She has held research grants from the Swedish Cancer Society since 1990, has been in Cancer Fund Priority Committee and Research Committee and is part of the Cancer Society’s expert advice. Photo: Stefan Zimmerman.

How is research on lifestyle?

  • First, let me mention a little history. 1989 I started with the case-control studies, which means that you ask people in two similar groups about how they lived. The difference is that the people in one group has just received a cancer diagnosis, while those in the other group does not. Then you compare the groups’ answers to questions about diet and other lifestyle, and draw conclusions about the role of lifestyle in cancer. Unfortunately, case-control studies provide equivocal results.

Are there better ways?

  • Yes, today I work only with the prospective, population-based cohorts. Sounds complicated, but the principle is simple. In conjunction with mammography, we have set lifestyle issues to 60 000 women from Uppsala and Västmanland born from 1914 to 1948. Approximately every ten years, they may respond to a new survey – as some change their lifestyle over time. Since 1997, we carry out the same kind study even of 50 000 men, born from 1918 to 1952. We collect yearly reports of new cases of cancer among those surveyed, and we can study whether a certain lifestyle are overrepresented among those who suffer from cancer.

Which lifestyle factors affect health negatively?

– Poor diet, sedentary, smoking, alcohol and obesity. The good thing is that a good lifestyle prevents both cancer and cardiovascular disease, perhaps even Alzheimer’s. If one does well on these five points can reduce the risk of, for example, colon cancer by 70 percent of heart attack by 80 percent and type 2 diabetes by 90 percent. Smoking increases the risk not only for cancer but also for many other cancers. More about smoking and cancer here.

Remember to check off all five lifestyle factors; one can not, for example up smoking with being thin or eat extremely healthy diet.

How physical activity can reduce the risk of cancer?

  • Physical activity and greater muscle mass leads to a more efficient metabolism. Studies show that women lose several percent of their muscle mass per year after menopause, so it’s a good idea to counter it through strength training of any kind. The more muscle groups involved in the training, the better. I will immediately recognize that my personal weakness among lifestyle factors are just physical activity; Strength is not my favorite activity, but I will anyway brisk walking. It takes 55-60 minutes for me to go quickly from home to work. It can all do, it’s easy and costs nothing. More physical activity and cancer here.

Can poor diet cause cancer?

  • Not directly, but good nutrition helps the body protect itself from cancer. Eat at least half a kilo of different vegetables and fruits a day. Fruits and vegetables not only contain antioxidants and fiber, but also other protective substances, and each vegetable has its own unique set. I appreciate frozen vegetables for nutritionally full and saves time. Select bags of mixed broccoli, cauliflower and carrots, for example, or mix yourself. Cook them lightly. Eat also root vegetables and legumes such as peas and soybeans; also contains various substances that protect the body. And the whole course. More on diet and cancer here.

– Red meat, ie beef, pork and lamb are good but limit intake to no more than half a kilo per week. Butcher should be avoided; myself, I eat ham only at Christmas and Easter. Instead, choose chicken and fish, and then like salmon or other fatty fish. Limit also the amount of candy, cakes and sweet drinks, products that can easily contribute to obesity. More about obesity and cancer here.

Also, studies have shown that sugar can increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, which unfortunately is a difficult to treat disease.

Supplements may be able to help?

  • It is double-edged. Most of us have no use of supplements and they do not help the development of cancer or prevent recurrence of cancer. Smokers who take dietary supplements actually run an increased risk of dying of cancer. And people who take such vitamin C or E in large doses likely to have cataracts earlier in life and have twice the risk of kidney stones. Vitamin D is also not overdose, either in pill form or via the sun. It is enough 10 minutes sun exposure per day for the body to produce enough vitamin D, so there is no need to expose themselves to the strong summer sun for a long time, it is only harmful and increase the risk of skin cancer. Only a small group of people, perhaps because of illness, can not eat an adequate diet can compensate with multivitamin because the doses are small here.

Alcohol in small amounts is said to be good for the heart, it also applies to cancer?

  • No, alcohol is linked to increased cancer risk, so from the point of view of cancer should not drink anything at all. However you choose to drink should do so in very moderate amounts of up to 10 cl wine for women and 20 cl wine for men per day. More about alcohol and cancer here.

High doses of testosterone can counter the spread of prostate cancer

To throttle the supply of male hormones is the conventional treatment in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. But the short-term, very high doses can paradoxically also have an effect, according to a pilot study.

– This is a pretty revolutionary concept that can possibly be used in patients in the future. In theory, there are good reasons for it can work but it must be tested much more detailed, says Jan-Erik Damber, professor of urology at the University of Gothenburg, who has not been involved in the current research.

The background of the new study include experiments in test tubes with prostate cancer cells that have become resistant to conventional hormone therapy and thus proliferate despite low levels of testosterone in the surroundings.

In the experiments, the cells died when exposed to high levels of testosterone, possibly as a kind of shock reaction when compensated the previous lack of testosterone by expressing more testosterone receptors on their surface.

– An interesting aspect is that the high doses of testosterone seem to back the cancer cells in the development so that they become more sensitive to the hormone again, says Jan-Erik Damber.

In the new study, which is conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA, included patients whose tumors had stopped responding to conventional hormone therapy.

In 7 of the 16 participants, tumors shrank when high doses of testosterone were injected intramuscularly once a month. At the same time was also normal hormone strangling the body’s natural production of testosterone.

Although the tumors eventually began to grow again could Four patients remain on treatment for more than a year. Adverse reactions were mild, the researchers reported.

They have now started a larger study in which the new concept tested.

  • If this should be an option in everyday health care needs to be compared against standard treatment in hormone-resistant prostate cancer, who cytostatikumet docetaxel and the new types of hormone drug abiraterone and enzalutamid, says Jan-Erik Damber and continues:

– We also need studies of patients with more symptomatic illness than those who were included in this study, not least because there are fears that the treatment might increase the growth of tumors in some patients.

Read the abstract of the study